There Are No Saints Online - Stephen Marche on Internet Hate - Esquire:
In February, a long-term study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry established that bullies and their victims both have a higher rate of mental illness for decades afterward.Science magazine reported on the effects of nasty comments about science stories online: Not only do they fail to improve debate, they also make people stupider. The "nasty effect," as the researchers call it, has a polarizing effect in that readers react by becoming more entrenched in their previous opinions, whether positive or negative.
The use of pseudonyms greatly increases how much people write online — by as much as five times — but the depersonalization and the indirectness fuel abuse; people say things online they would never say to your face.How anti-racism lessons INCREASE pupil intolerance: They 'cause animosity to other cultures' | Mail Online: "Dutch study finds discussing sensitive ethnic concerns can be counter-productive" (This effect was noticed in 1997; see An Anti-Racism Campaign: Who Needs It? – Parliament of Australia.)